New M.E. Thesis Submitted from EE Student

SUSTAINABLE BIOMASS POWER FOR VILLAGE PASLA (PUNJAB): A CASE STUDY By Ramandeep Kaur,Electrical

Abstract
The study in this report is thesis for M. Tech on, “SUSTAINABLE BIOMASS POWER FOR VILLAGE PASLA (PUNJAB) A CASE STUDY”, undertaken and submitted at G.N.D.E.C. Ludhiana. Energy is integral to virtually every aspect of life. It is hard to imagine life without it. Yet many of our most serious threats to clean air, clean water and healthy eco systems stem from human energy use. Currently, most energy is produced from coal, oil natural gas and uranium. These energy sources pollute air and water, damage the earth climate, destroy fragile eco-system and endanger human health. A large amount of energy we generate is wasted,raising energy cost and harming the environment. We can meet our energy needs while protecting human wealth, our climate and other natural systems. Rural energy planning requires choices among energy technologies. One of the most useful decentralized sources of energy supply is biogas - an approximately 60:40 mixture of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) - produced by anaerobicaly fermenting cellulosic biomass materials. Biogas can be utilized to fuel engines that, in turn, drive generator sets to generate electricity. It has a calorific value of 23 MJ/m3.Biomass materials are used since millennia for meeting myriad humans needs including energy. Main source of biomass energy are trees, crops and animal waste. Biomass contributes over a third of primary energy in India. Biomass fuels in are predominantly used in rural households for cooking and water heating, as well as by traditional and artisan industries. Biomass delivers most energy for domestic use (rural-90% and urban-40%). Punjab is an agricultural state with fertile land, livestock, agriculture residue and animal residue. Rural areas have a variety of available biomass materials including fuel wood,agricultural wastes, and animal wastes. In particular, many areas have large cattle and buffalo herds, whose considerable wastes have much energy potential. Traditionally, these wastes are carefully collected in and used as fertilizer, except in places where villagers are forced by the iii scarcity of fuel wood to burn dung-cakes as cooking fuel. Since biogas plants yield sludge fertilizer, the biogas fuel and/or electricity generated is a valuable additional bonus. Virtually all biogas programmes are based on family-size biogas plants rather than community biogas plants. Yet family-size biogas plants lose significant economies of scale. The amount of biogas they are able to produce is more suited for cooking than for running an engine and generating electricity. Community biogas plants are more economical; the problems associated with them tend to be social rather than technical.The use of community biogas plants to generate electricity is worth considering, particularly because it is an ideal fuel to run an engine that can then drive a generator and generate electricity. It is particularly useful in the context of dual fuel (diesel and biogas) engines. In addition to this we can supply the biogas for cooking in the village.



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