OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATOR IN DEREGULATED POWER SYSTEM By Saurabh Ratra,Power
IMPROVING MACHINIG PRODUCTIVITY OF SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE BLOCK:A CASE STUDY OF MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION By Vikas Gulati,Industrial
VEHICLE ROUTING FOR MILK RUN SYSTEM:A CASE STUDY By Gagan Saini,Industrial
transportation cost due to consolidated transportation offsetting, improved logistics rocurement system, improved vehicle loading rate and shortened total distance traveled. In the case company, a bottling unit, direct shipping system is currently used in which a vehicle needs to make number of small trips for distribution. In the present work Spoke system and Rim system were analyzed in which number of retailers in a group and their route sequence were considered. Different groups of retailers and their route sequence were selected for which the transportation cost was minimum. The various approaches used shows that rim system is more economical than spoke system where vendors are nearby. After implementing the rim system it was found that the transportation cost of a week reduced from Rs. 6675 to Rs. 3270. Total distance travelled by the vehicles reduced from 1524 km to 582 km. CO2 emission was reduced to 8925 kg in a week. The promotion of Milk- Run system is therefore highly evaluated from the viewpoint of environmental policy.
INVESTIGATIONS FOR STATISTICALLY CONTROLLED INVESTMENT CASTING SOLUTION USING ABS REPLICAS By Gurwinder Singh,Production
OPTIMIZATION OF COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM USING SIMULATED ANNEALING By Kiranjot Kaur,Electronics
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS IN STEEL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:A CASE STUDY Bu Jasgurpreet S. Chohan,Production
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF SHAPE FACTOR SLURRY LAYERS AND POURING TEMPERATURE IN PRECISION INVESTMENT CASTING By Jagdeep Singh,Production
EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT LAYOUT:A CASE STUDY OF MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION By Jagmeet Kaur,Industrial
DESPECKLING OF ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING WAVELETS By Gunjan,cse
ELECTRICAL ENERGY AUDIT OF A STEEL INDUSTRY By Manpreet Singh,Electrical
EFFECT OF SOME PARAMETERS ON THE CAST COMPONENT PROPERTIES IN HOT CHAMBER DIE CASTING By Harvir Singh,Production
EFFECT OF PHASE PRESSURE ON CASTING PROPERTIES IN COLD CHAMBER DIE CASTING PROCESS By Rahul Kapoor,Production
MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN INDIAN RAILWAY CONTAINER BUSINESS USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS By Neeraj Bhanot,Industrial
THE GREENING OF SUPPLIES SELECTION CRITERIA IN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING SECTOR OF PUNJAB:AN EMPIRICAL STUDY By Gaganpreet Singh,Industrial
NORMALIZATION AND MODIFICATION OF CONCATENATED SPEECH USING TD PSOLA METHOD By Jasmeet Singh,cse
SOME INVESTIGATIONS FOR INVESTMENT CASTING APPLICATIONS By Sunpreet Singh,Production
CHROMATIC DISPERSION COMPENSATION USING AN OPTICAL ALL PASS FILTER By Mandeep Singh,Electronics
DESPECKLING OF MEDICAL ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING CURVELETS By Jappreet Kaur,cse
A COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MOBILE AD HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS UNDER HIGH DATA TRAFFIC AND HI DEFINITION VIDEO CONFERENCING By Barjinder S. Kaler,ElectronicsAbstract
INVESTIGATIONS IN DICTIONARY ATTACKS ON CELLULAR SECURITY BASED ON DES AND AES By Megha Nagpal,Electronics
COMPARISON BETWEEN CWT BASED SEPERABLE 3D AND 4D NONLOCAL SPATIOTEMPORAL TRANSFORMS FOR VIDEO DENOISING By Shivani Goyal,Electronics<./H4>
The large number of practical application involving digital videos has motivated a significant interest in restoration or enhancement solutions to improve the visual quality under the presence of noise. At the moment, the most effective approach in restoring images or videos exploits the redundancy given by the nonlocal similarity between patches at different locations within the data. BM3D(Block matching three dimensional) relies on the so-called grouping and collaborative filtering paradigm: the observation is processed in a block wise manner and mutually similar 2-D image blocks are stacked into a 3-D group (grouping), which is then filtered through a transform-domain shrinkage (collaborative filtering), simultaneously providing different estimates for each grouped block. These estimates are then returned to their respective locations and eventually aggregated in to the estimate of the image. The filtering in V-BM3D (video-block matching three dimensional) is not able to distinguish between temporal versus spatial nonlocal similarity. It means in this technique, it is tough to understand that the blocks are grouped regardless of whether their similarity is due to the tracking of motion a long time or to the nonlocal spatial self-similarity within each frame). A powerful video denoising algorithm BM4D (block matching 4 dimensional), is required that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy characterizing natural video sequences to reduce the effect of noise. The algorithm implements paradigm of nonlocal grouping and collaborative filtering, where a four dimensional transform domain representation is leveraged to enforce sparsity and thus regularize the data. Moreover I have presented an extension of BM4D algorithm that can be effectively used as a blocking and deranging filter to reduce the artifacts introduced by most of the popular video compression techniques, have been proposed in this work. The algorithm, termed V-CWT-BM4D (video-complex wavelet transform-block matching four dimensional), at first constricts three dimensional volumes, by tracking blocks along trajectories defined by motion vectors and then grouped together mutually similar volumes by stacking them along a fourth dimension. Each group is transformed through a decorrelating four dimensional separable complex wavelet transform, and then it is collaboratively filtered by coeffients shrinkage. The effectiveness of shrinkage is due to the sparse representation of the transformed group: local correlation along the two dimensions of the block, temporal correlation along the motion trajectories, and the nonlocal spatial correlation along the fourth dimension. As a conclusive step, the different estimates of the filtered groups are adaptively aggregated and subsequently returned to their original position, to produce a final estimate of the original video. The proposed filtering procedure leads to excellent results in both objective and subjective visual quality, since in the restored video sequences the effect of the noise or of the compression artifacts is noticeably reduced, while the significant features are preserved. As demonstrated by experimental results, V-CWT-BM4D outperforms the state of art in video denoising as compared to V-CWT-BM3D.
IMPACT ON RELIABILITY OF UTILITY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN EMBEDDED GENERATION By Sunil Kaushik,Electrical
In modern manufacturing processes the investment casting is one of the most commonly used processes to achieve high rate of production with good quality. For investment casting process, formation of shell over the mold (by applying the paint and silica sand) has been considered the most important parameters for achieving the good quality castings. In this research work application of layer by layer of paint and silica slurry, of different grades (30-50, 50-80, 80-100 mesh), over the patterns (in the form of a tree) has been highlighted. For final experimentation; three different sets with the layers (3-1-1, 2-2-1 and 2-1-2) have been studied and compared for sound castings. The cast components have been analyzed based upon mechanical and metallurgical properties.
AUTOMATED ASSESSMENT WITH IDENTIFYING WORD ORDERING OF SHORT SENTENCES By Navjeet Kaur,cse
Assessment is used to evaluate the learner’s knowledge about the concepts learnt. Evaluation through objective testing is common in all evaluation system, where Multiple Choice Questions, Fill in the Blanks, Matching etc. are used for evaluation. The method of objective testing is not sufficient to completely verify all the concepts learnt by the learner. Objective type evaluation do not provide opportunity for deeper assessment. Objective type assessment provide limited insight into student knowledge. Thus computer assisted assessment of short text answers is developed. Here we present an approach to assess the short answers of computer science automatically. In this research we have define a set of evaluation criteria that covers all the relevant aspects of an essay assessment system. This research will perform summative assessment for short one-line sentence. This research outlined the implementation and analysis of technique used to automatically evaluate short one-line sentence response. This technique is used for summative assessment of short text responses. This technique perform filtering process before evaluation. It removes unimportant data that is present in the answer before the actual evaluation of a response typed by a student. It removes stopwords, stems, punctuation symbols, extra spaces, articles, duplicate words if any present in the answer. It also consider spelling mistakes and synonyms during evaluation process. This system will also take into account synonyms of words present in the text during evaluation process. This research will also perform grammar checking during evaluation of short one-line sentence responses. This research will not ignore word ordering. It will take into account a syntactic information present in any text. So this research will also consider syntactic information between words in a sentence for giving appropriate marks to a particular student.
OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF PULSE SHAPING FILTERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS By Mandeep S. Saini,Electronics
An area efficient pulse shaping filtering technique is presented to reduce the implementation cost in wireless communication. Pulse shaping filter has been designed using raised cosine filter, nyquist filter and half band filter techniques. All designs have been compared in terms of performance and hardware requirement. The Park McClellan algorithm based equiripple technique has been used to optimize proposed design. The results show that the performance of the half band designs is almost identical to the raised cosine filter with significant reduction in hardware requirements. The proposed IIR half band design results in lowest filter order to provide cost effective solution for wireless communication systems. The wide diffusion of wireless terminals like cellular phones is opening new challenges in the field of mobile telecommunications. Besides, the possibility to transmit not only voice but even data between terminals and end users of many kinds has fostered the development of new technologies and new standards for cellular communications. Recently, there is increasingly strong interest on implementing multimode terminals, which are able to process different types of signals, i.e. WCDMA, GPRS, WLAN and Bluetooth. These versatile mobile terminals favor simple receiver architectures because otherwise they’d be too costly and bulky for practical applications. As digital technology ramps up for this century, an ever-increasing number of RF applications will involve the transmission of digital data from one point to another. The general scheme is to convert the data into a suitable baseband signal that is then modulated onto an RF carrier. Pulse shaping filters are used at the heart of many modern data transmission systems like mobile phones, HDTV, SDR to keep a signal in an allotted bandwidth, maximize its data transmission rate and Minimize transmission errors. The ideal pulse shaping filter has two properties:
i. A high stop band attenuation to reduce the inter channel interference as much as possible.
ii. Minimized inter symbol interferences (ISI) to achieve a bit error rate as low as possible. The RRC filters are required to avoid inter-symbol interference and constrain the amount of bandwidth required for transmission. Root raised cosine (RRC) is a favorable filter to do pulse shaping as it transition band is shaped like a cosine curve and the response meets the nyquistcriteria. The first nyquist criterion states that in order to achieve an ISI-free transmission, the impulse response of the shaping filter should have zero crossings at multiples of the symbol period. A time-domain sinc pulse meets these requirements since its frequency response is a brick wall but this filter is not realizable. We can however approximate it by sampling the impulse response of the ideal continuous filter. The sampling rate must be at least twice the symbol rate of the message to transmit. That is, the filter must interpolate the data by at least a factor of two and often more to simplify the analog circuitry. In its simplest system configuration, a pulse shaping interpolator at the transmitter is associated with a simple down sampler at the receiver. The FIR structure with linear phase technique is efficient as it takes advantage of symmetrical coefficients and uses half the required multiplications and additions.
EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ON POWER SYSTEM SECURITY By Sameer Verma,Electrical
A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF MOBILE PHONE SERVICE USERS OPERATING IN PUNJAB By Vipan Bansal,Industrail
Indian telecom sector like any other industrial sector in the country has gone through many phases of growth and diversification. Starting from telegraphic the field of telecommunication has now expended to make use of technologies like Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) to 3G in the mobile phones. The increased importance of services that makes the customer unsatisfied and also made content developers to come up with better and newer concepts and services. To understand that where this industry is at present and where it is headed, the research has been conducted to uncover the trends in the cellular industry and also to determine the reasons of shifting the service providers. In this study the opinion of 700 consumers from Punjab were taken. The results revealed that Short Message Service (SMS) is the most widely used Value Added Service followed by General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It has also been found that most of the respondents were satisfied with their current service provider but still eighteen percent respondents want to shift their service provider gave maximum willingness for shifting to Airtel. Call charges was the reason of changing the service provider with weighed score of 3.80 followed by poor network and customer care service having weighted score of 3.12 and 2.94 respectively.
MULTI OBJECTIVE CIRCUIT PARTITIONING FOR POWER OPTIMIZATION USING SIMULATED ANNEALING By Sumeer Khajuria,Electronics
Circuit partitioning is the task of dividing a circuit into smaller parts. It is an important aspect of layout for several reasons. Partitioning can be used directly to divide a circuit into portions that are implemented on separate physical components, such as printed circuit boards or chips. The objective is to partition the circuit into parts such that the sizes of the components are within prescribed ranges and the complexity of connections between the components is minimized. As the size of present-day computer chips become larger (i.e., chips containing more than ten million transistors in sub-micron areas), the importance of obtaining near-optimal layouts that efficiently place and route the signals becomes increasingly important. Partitioning is a key approach in reducing the connectivity between areas of the chip so that modules can be more efficiently placed and routed to reduce wire-length, congestion, and increase the speed of the overall design. So, circuit partitioning is the decomposition of complex system into smaller subsystems with the objective that each subsystem can be independently designed thereby speeding up the design process and to minimize the interconnections between the subsystems. A balance constraint is often imposed to ensure that each subsystem contains about same number of components and this decomposition is carried out hierarchically, till each subsystem is of manageable size. Partitioning is a Hierarchical process, which can be carried out at three independent levels: System Level Partitioning, Board Level Partitioning, N1, N2 …....Nk and Chip Level Partitioning. Partitioning problem can be formulated as bi-partitioning or a multi-partitioning problem. Partitioning algorithms are broadly classified into two classes: Constructive and Iterative. On the basis of nature of the algorithm, partitioning algorithms can be classified as deterministic or probabilistic. On the basis of process used for partitioning algorithms can be classified as group migration algorithms, simulated annealing, and evolutionary algorithm.Problem of circuit net list partitioning is non polynomial hard and cannot be effectively solved by deterministic algorithms. SA being the algorithm belonging to the probabilistic and iterative class of algorithms are stochastic in nature and can be effectively used for circuit net list partitioning. In the present work, min-set and sleep time optimization has been simultaneously attempted.
SELECTION OF PARAMETER "r" IN RC5 w/r/b ALGORITHM ON THE PRIME NUMBER By Harsimranjit S. Gill,Electronics
With the precipitous application of internet and wireless network, has triggered significant needs for information security and personal privacy. However, wireless systems are more vulnerable to unauthorized access and eavesdropping. A mechanism is required that ensures the security for the transmission of data over a communication link. Cryptography is the best way to convert the plain text into cipher text and then transmitted over the channel and by this means only the intended recipient would able to receive the data and other person could not recover the original information.
RC5 has a variable word size, a variable length secret key and variable number of rounds. Ronald Rivest proposed the RC5 algorithm with 12 numbers of rounds for better encryption. In this thesis the proposed work is that if the value for the rounds in RC5 be a prime number then the security level of the cipher is more, as compare to the higher value of rounds up to next prime number. By the NIST suite, different tests of RC5 algorithm are performed having same data length and key but for different number of rounds and the result for prime number of round is compared with composite number of rounds and results justifies that RC5 for prime number of rounds provide better security level than a result drawn by a composite number of round.
SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY HYBRIDIZATION OF FPAB ALGORITHM AND BACTERIAL CHEMOTAXIS By Loveleen Kaur,cse
Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) has been widely accepted as a global optimization technique. This technique is proposed by K.M. Passino in 2002 to handle complex problems of the real world. In this work, we aim to classify the satellite image using the technique of Bacterial Foraging Optimization. One key step in BFO is the computational chemotaxis, where a bacterium takes steps over the foraging landscape in order to reach regions with high nutrient content. The chemotactic movement of a bacterium may be viewed as a guided random walk. In this thesis work, we design a new algorithm which is based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization which is used to classify the satellite image. The proposed algorithm has been applied to the 7-band satellite image of Alwar region of Rajasthan. Firstly we use a swarm data clustering method based upon flower pollination by artificial bees (FPAB) to cluster the satellite image pixels. Those clusters will be further classified using BFO. This new method shows an improved highly accurate results for the classification of satellite image. The accuracy of the results has been checked by obtaining error matrix and the KHAT statistics of the proposed algorithm. The accuracy of each feature has also been obtained by calculating the producer’s and user’s accuracy. The results indicate that highly accurate land cover features can be extracted effectively when the proposed algorithm is used.
QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF HOSPITAL WASTE GENERATION TO RECOVER ENERGY:A STUDY OF MOGA DISTRICT By Amrinder Singh,Industrial
Medical care is vital for our life and health, but the waste generated from medical activities represents a real problem of living nature and human world. The purpose of the present study is to obtain the quantitative assessment of hospital waste generation to recover energy in Moga district. To assess the types and quantity of different types of hospital waste a questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire consists of quantitative questions. 60 respondents from 20 hospitals have been personally visited and made to fill the questionnaire. Five samples of each different types of hospital waste like cotton, bandages, plastic syringe and glucose bottles in different conditions were taken from hospital. Collected samples were tested in laboratory where calorific value and proximate analysis tests were conducted. The study highlighted that glucose bottles has highest percentage in terms of mass with 46%, bandages next highest has 16%, glass with 14%, plastic syringe with 12%, cotton and paper has 6% each in terms of mass. Plastic syringe has highest calorific value which is 42740 kJ/kg, while cotton has least 15190 kJ/kg. The study highlighted that quantity of hospital waste is increasing rapidly, it is better to implement an energy recovery project rather than incinerate or dumping of hospital waste. A gasifier should be installed near Moga, since land cost is less and hospital waste of Moga and near districts can be simultaneously treated there.
A NOVEL ALGORITHM FOR CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT By Gursharanpreet Kaur,cse
The importance of image as a media for storing and distribution of information in the multimedia area has increasingly grown. Images are often corrupted owing to channel transmission errors, faulty image acquisition devices, engine sparks, a.c., power interference and atmospheric electrical emissions. Because of these reasons, the objectives of corrupted images are hardly to distinguish. So these images need enhancement processing before objectives recognition. The purpose of enhancement is to stand out the useful information and enlarge the difference of characters in different objects in order to improve the vision effect and stand out the characters. The traditional enhancement algorithms are usually based on the computation of the whole image and the low frequency, high frequency and the noise are transformed synchronously while calculating transformation of the whole image. These algorithms enhance noise signal in image while they enhance image, which leads to the descent of information entropy. In recent years, the wavelet transform has become an attractive technique for image analysis and image compression. With its continuously increasing applications, the wavelet transform also shows its potential in image enhancement. Wavelet decomposition provides local information in both space domain and frequency domain. In the present work, a hybrid algorithm for contrast enhancement of gray-scale images has been proposed. Wavelets have been used as a preprocessing step for contrast enhancement. Although there are many contrast enhancement techniques which enhances the contrast of the image either locally or globally, but the proposed technique enhances the contrast of the image by working separately on low as well as high coefficients. The proposed technique is compared both subjectively as well as objectively by using suitable quality metrics with the existing contrast enhancement technique. The evaluation of the results shows that the proposed technique is better as compared to other existing techniques.
PHONEME BASED TEXT TO SPEECH SYSTEM FOR PUNJABI By Mnapreet Kaur,cse
In recent years, the use of computers in speech synthesis and speech recognition has become an important area of study among speech and computer scientists. The primary motive is to provide users with a friendly vocal interface with the computer and to allow people with certain handicaps (such as blinds) to use the computer. In this thesis, work is concerned with the development of Text-To-Speech (TTS) Synthesis System for Punjabi text, written in Gurmukhi script. Punjabi is the world’s 12th most widely spoken language. The populace speaking Punjabi is not only confined to North Indian states of India such as Punjab, Haryana and Delhi but is spread in over all parts of the world. Punjabi is a phonetic language and commonly written in Gurmukhi script. The research work was carried out with the aim that the developed system must produce synthetic speech corresponding to two qualities of Speech Synthesis: intelligibility and naturalness. In order to get the naturalness in the synthetic speech, Concatenative speech synthesis techniques have been used, with Punjabi Phoneme as a basic unit. The total Punjabi Phonemes were analyzed over a carefully selected Punjabi corpus and the valid phonemes were selected. The Punjabi speech database was prepared by labelling phoneme sounds in the recorded sound file; and then storing, starting and ending point’s boundary values in the database. A fairly good quality Punjabi Text-To-Speech synthesis speech has been developed.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WIRE ELECTRODE MATERIALS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WEDM By Rajeev Kumar,Porduction
Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a special form of the traditional EDM process in which material is eroded from the work piece by a series of discrete sparks between the work piece and the wire electrode separated by a thin film of dielectric fluid. The movement of the wire is controlled numerically to achieve the desired three-dimensional shape and accuracy for the work piece. WEDM is used in tool and die making industries, automobiles, aerospace, nuclear, computer and electronics industries. The average cutting speed, relative machining costs, accuracy and surface finish have been improved since the commercial inception of the machines; much more improvement is still required to meet the increasing demand of precision and accuracy by different industries. The performance of WEDM depends much on the wire electrode used. Brass wire is used extensively as a wire electrode in WEDM. Various high performance electrodes like zinc coated, diffusion annealed, coated steel core wires etc. have been developed to satisfy the machining needs. In the present study, three wires (brass wire, zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire) were selected and the performance parameters – cutting rate, wire wear and surface roughness were studied on the machining of AISI D3 steel. The full factorial design was used to analyze the relationship of input parameters (pulse on time, peak current and type of wire) with performance characteristics (cutting rate, wire wear and surface roughness). Results obtained shows the improvement in surface roughness with brass wire over zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire, but maximum wire wear was recorded with HCS wire. Cutting rate was maximum with HCS wire and minimum with brass wire. Electron Diffraction Spectrometry (EDS) results shows some deposition of work piece material on the wire. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the wire wear and surface roughness of work piece (after machining).
EMOTIONAL SPEECH GENERATION FOR PUNJABI USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE By Manpreet Kaur,cse
Generating emotions in speech is currently an imperative issue of research giving the requirement of modern human- machine interaction systems to produce expressive speech. Speech synthesis involves the simulation of human speech by computers. The different emotional states affect the speech production mechanism of a speaker in a number of ways, and leads to acoustical changes in their speech. These changes are perceived by listener due to the emotions added. This thesis describes a speech generation system that is able to generate emotional synthetic speech from a recorded natural speech using Digital Signal Processing Technique. This system implements TD-PSOLA method to simulate four basic emotions that are anger, fear, happiness and sadness. These are chosen as they utilize different changes in vocal parameters; anger and happiness shows increased activity in the pitch contour, anger also shows noticeable voice quality changes, sadness shows decreased activity in the pitch contour, The speech rate is slightly faster than in normal speech and contains pauses between words forming almost one third of the total speaking time. For embedding emotions TD-PSOLA method has been implemented that can be used to simulate different emotions in a natural speech. TD-PSOLA is used as it allows for high quality pitch and time scale modifications of stored speech segments and has a very low complexity and computational cost. The evaluation of the system showed that it generates recognizable emotions in speech but improvements are still necessary.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EDM WIRE ELECTRODES ON THE MACHINABILITY OF D3 MATERIAL By Vikrant Aggarwal,Production
Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a special form of the traditional EDM process in which material is eroded from the work piece by a series of discrete sparks between the work piece and the wire electrode separated by a thin ?lm of dielectric ?uid. The movement of the wire is controlled numerically to achieve the desired three-dimensional shape and accuracy for the work piece. WEDM is used in tool and die making industries, automobiles, aerospace, nuclear, computer and electronics industries. The average cutting speed, relative machining costs, accuracy and surface ?nish have been improved since the commercial inception of the machines, much more improvement is still required to meet the increasing demand of precision and accuracy by different industries.The performance of WEDM depends much on the wire electrode used. Brass wire is used extensively as a wire electrode in WEDM. Various high performance electrodes like zinc coated, diffusion annealed, coated steel cored etc. have been developed to satisfy the machining needs. In the present study, three wires (brass wire, zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire) were selected and the performance parameters - material removal rate, wire consumption and surface roughness were studied on the machining of AISI D3.The factor analysis was used to analyse the relationship of input parameters (Pulse on time and Peak Current ) with performance characteristics (material removal rate, wire consumption and surface roughness).Result obtained shows the improvement in surface roughness with brass wire over zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire , but maximum wire consumption (117 m/ piece) was also recorded with brass wire. Material removal rate was maximum with HCS wire and minimum with brass wire. Electron Diffraction Spectrometry (EDS) results shows the deposition of wire material on the work piece. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the deposition of different elements wire on the surface of workpiece.
NUMERICAL STUDY OF SHALLOW FOOTING ON MULTILAYER REINFORCED SLOPE By Sudhir Arora,civil
Soil being the cheapest and readily available construction material has been popular with the civil engineers but being poor in mechanical properties it has been putting challenge to civil engineers to improve its properties depending upon the requirement which varies from site to site along with economic constraints. The use of reinforcement to improve the bearing capacity and settlement performance of shallow foundations has proven to be a cost-effective foundation system. Reinforcement can be in the form of sheets, strips, nets or mats of metal or synthetic fabric etc. Many times foundations are to be constructed on loose granular soils, soft fine-grained soils, or soft organic soils. In those situations geosynthetics enhance the ability to use shallow foundations in lieu of the most expensive deep foundations. A reinforced soil foundation (RSF) consists of one or more layers of a geosynthetic reinforcement and controlled fill placed below a conventional spread footing to create a composite material with improved performance. A composite reinforced soil foundation (CRSF) is an RSF that also includes a geosynthetic fabric separating native soil from the fill used to construct the RSF. There are many situations where footings are located on sloping fills (e.g., footings for bridge abutments on sloping embankments). In thses cases the bearing capacity of the footing may be significantly reduced, depending on the location of the footing with respect to the slope. One of the possible measures to improve the bearing capacity would be to reinforce the foundation ground with layers of geogrid. When a footing is constructed on a reinforced slope, the bearing capacity of the footing would be significantly increased by the presence of correctly placed reinforcements. The use of conventional material i.e. a (c- f) soil transported from borrow pits, in the construction of soil embankments becomes very costly as the soil is to be excavated, transported to the site and then it is to be used for construction. The use of conventional material is, therefore, increasingly becoming expensive and scarce. There is thus, a growing need in developing countries for research to be undertaken aimed at channelling local technology to the design and construction of low cost highway and other such projects. This is pertinent with abundance of cheap locally available raw materials/industrial wastes coupled with high cost of imported materials of construction.Fly ash provides an economical and suitable alternative to good earth for construction of embankments because it is one of the major industrial wastes coming out of the thermal power plants. Use of such wastes for major geotechnical applications will not only solve the problem of their disposal but also eliminate the environmental pollution to a great extent. Keeping this fact in view, fly ash has been chosen as the test medium. However, fly ash has been viewed very sceptically by Civil Engineers because of the fact that it is very fine grained material having little shear strength. It can only be used in huge amount with reinforcement. Thus fly ash will provide bulk of the mass to the geotechnical system and the reinforcement will provide the necessary strength.The present investigation involves numerical analysis with a commercial finite element program PLAXIS. The advantage of developing such a finite element model is that it can be used to examine various configurations which have not been modeled experimentally in the study. The numerical study (usuing PLAXIS) has been carried out for un-reinforced/reinforced fly ash slopes having multiple layer of reinforcement at different depths from the top of the slope.The bearing capacity and the settlement ratio of a rigid plane strain footing placed on top of a slope comprised of air-dried fly-ash with and without a multiple layer of geogrid–geotextile reinforcement are the two major outcomes of this study. The results from PLAXIS are compared with the experimental modelling results from the existing literature for the stability of fly ash slope reinforced with multiple geogrid layer. Various other aspects, which influence the behaviour of footings resting on the top of an unreinforced slope and reinforced slope have been taken into consideration in the present study, are location of the reinforcement and depth of embedment which are incorporated within the body of a model waste material. The results obtained from the proposed analysis show good agreement with the experimental results and therefore may be used for design of reinforced slopes loaded with a surcharge at its top.
NUMERICAL STUDY OF FOOTING ON SINGLE LAYER REINFORCED SLOPE By Amanpreet Kaur,civil
Increasing demand of good construction sites opened a new direction to improve the weak soils to enable constructional operations possible on such soils. Among the various ground improvement techniques available, reinforced earth technique gained popularity over other techniques due to the overall economy and ease of construction, coupled with simplicity, which provides an added attraction to practicing engineers. Reinforced earth is formed by the association of soil and tension resistant elements in the form of sheets, strips, nets or mats of metal or synthetic fabric and arranged in such a way as to reduce or suppress the tensile strain, which might develop under gravity and boundary forces. Use of geosynthetics increases bond in the soil system due to the interlocking of soil particles with the reinforcement aperture as well as enhancing the bearing resistance of the transverse members of the reinforcement. Reinforced earth possesses many novel characteristics, which renders it eminently suitable for construction of engineering structures. The flexible nature of reinforced earth mass enables it to withstand large differential settlements as well without distress. Reinforced soil foundations may be used to construct shallow foundations on loose granular soils, soft fine grained soils or soft organic soils. The use of geosynthetics to improve the bearing capacity and settlement performance of shallow foundations has proven to be a cost effective foundation system. Geosynthetic reinforced soil has gained considerable popularity due to its wide application in the construction of geotechnical structures.Civil engineering structures are normally constructed on level ground but construction of such structures on top of a slope or on the slope are not uncommon. Further, in some engineering practice, structures such as bridge abutments or other traffic facilities have to be constructed close to the crest of a slope. The bearing capacity of a foundation constructed near the edge of slope reduces as compared to the foundation constructed on a horizontal ground surface. The investigation of bearing capacity of loaded slope is therefore one of the very important aspects in design of such structures because they are more liable to failure due to slope failure. Stability of such structures is thus inter-related with the stability of slopes. The positioning of footings in relation to the edge of the slope is another important aspect; which has implications not only on the safety but also on the overall design of such structures. A reinforced soil slope is a soil slope which is mechanically stabilised by reinforcements to maintain a steeper attitude than its normal safe angle without reinforcement. Reinforced slopes are cost effective alternatives for new construction where the cost of fill, right of way and other considerations make a steeper slope desirable. Typically geosynthetics are used for reinforcement in engineering slopes to increase the stability of the slopes, particularly if a steeper than safe unreinforced slope is desirable. When compared with reinforced earth retaining walls and to that for reinforced level ground, the problem of the behaviour of footings located in the vicinity of the crest of a reinforced sloped fill has received virtually no attention. In view of the importance of the problem, it is therefore useful to adopt a comprehensive study concerning stability of unreinforced as well as reinforced slopes loaded at the crest. The present investigation aims at a comprehensive study of the various parameters that affect the stability of unreinforced and reinforced earth slopes loaded with rigid strip footings. A Numerical analysis was carried out using a commercial finite element program PLAXIS version 8 (Brinkgreve and Vermeer 1998). The reinforced slope was analysed by varying the depth of embedment of the geosynthetic reinforcement and the corresponding pressure – displacement curves were compared to get the optimum value of embedment depth of reinforcement. Also the distance of the footing from edge of slope at crest was varied to analyse the effect of edge distance on bearing capacity behaviour of the footings constructed on reinforced and unreinforced earth slopes. Two types of soils (sand and silty soil) and three different types of geosynthetics were used in the study. The objectives of this study are (i) To determine the influence of geosynthetic reinforcement on the bearing-capacity characteristics of a footing on slope, (ii) To obtain an optimum depth of embedment of geosynthetic reinforcement layer and (iii) To analyse the effect of edge distance on bearing capacity characteristics of footing constructed on slope. The results of the investigation indicate that both the pressure–settlement behaviour and the ultimate bearing capacity of footing improved considerably by the inclusion of a reinforcing layer at the appropriate location in the fill slope. Based on results of numerical study, the critical value of embedment depth of geogrid layer for maximum reinforcing effects was established. The results of the study were also compared with the available literature for validation of finite element analysis.
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