Wishes New Year


 
Wish to all happy new year 2014

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New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ee student

OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATOR IN DEREGULATED POWER SYSTEM By Saurabh Ratra,Power


Abstract
Transfer of electric energy from the source of generation to the customer via the transmission and distribution networks is accompanied by losses. The majority of these losses occur on the transmission system. The energy industry is in the midst of a transformation that will affect all electricity and natural gas consumers. State legislators and utility regulators are letting consumers choose among a variety of new energy suppliers on the basis of competitive prices and products. This trend is called deregulation. The advancement in new technology like fuel cell, wind turbine, photo voltaic and new innovation in power electronics, customer demands for better power quality and reliability are encouraging the power industry to shift for distributed generations. The research work presents the methodology of social welfare maximization for optimal placement of distributed generation (DG) in an optimal power flow (OPF) based wholesale electricity market. Optimal location of DG can be obtained by making use of Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and Consumer Payment (CP). LMP gives the short run marginal cost (SRMC) of electricity. Consumer payment (CP), evaluated as a product of LMP and load at each load bus. The enhancement of performance indices in deregulated power systems such as social welfare, demand benefits and earnings, supplier’s earnings, reduction of transmission congestion and losses are compared without and with DG. Moreover, the above stated performance indices are also compared under line loading and without line loading scenarios. The proposed analytical expressions are based on an improvement to the method that is limited to DG type, which is capable of delivering real power only. The proposed methodologies are tested in a modified IEEE 14-bus test system. The results show that a significant improvement in social welfare and subsequent reduction in transmission congestion and losses is achieved for both the scenarios in deregulated environment.
 

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Ind student

IMPROVING MACHINIG PRODUCTIVITY OF SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE BLOCK:A CASE STUDY OF MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION By Vikas Gulati,Industrial


Abstract
Productivity improvement is a concern of every industry regardless of the type of production. Productivity can either be improved by increasing the output value without increasing the input value or by decreasing the input value by utilizing the resources effectively and efficiently. The present work deals with the problem of low production of Engine Block in leading manufacturing organization, Hero Motors Limited, Ghaziabad. A thorough study of existing process revealed that the organization is facing the problem of low production rate with the machine Tong Tai having manual clamping unit attached with it. Keeping in view, fixture has been modified, which results in an increment of 9.0% in production rate per month and a reduction of 32% in manual time per job. 13% increment in machining time per job and 11% decrement in cycle time per job has also been recorded. Also the machining productivity of the machine Tong Tai has been increased by 11.25% per month by just changing the design of job fixture on the machine. 4.5% increment in overall production rate along with 5.1% increase in machining productivity per month of HML machine shop has also been achieved.


New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Ind student

VEHICLE ROUTING FOR MILK RUN SYSTEM:A CASE STUDY By Gagan Saini,Industrial


Abstract
An approach of milk run is concerned with the use of transportation strategies in different supply chains. Milk Run System is a method of goods collection which results in reduction of
transportation cost due to consolidated transportation offsetting, improved logistics rocurement system, improved vehicle loading rate and shortened total distance traveled. In the case company, a bottling unit, direct shipping system is currently used in which a vehicle needs to make number of small trips for distribution. In the present work Spoke system and Rim system were analyzed in which number of retailers in a group and their route sequence were considered. Different groups of retailers and their route sequence were selected for which the transportation cost was minimum. The various approaches used shows that rim system is more economical than spoke system where vendors are nearby. After implementing the rim system it was found that the transportation cost of a week reduced from Rs. 6675 to Rs. 3270. Total distance travelled by the vehicles reduced from 1524 km to 582 km. CO2 emission was reduced to 8925 kg in a week. The promotion of Milk- Run system is therefore highly evaluated from the viewpoint of environmental policy.






New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

INVESTIGATIONS FOR STATISTICALLY CONTROLLED INVESTMENT CASTING SOLUTION USING ABS REPLICAS By Gurwinder Singh,Production


Abstract
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the prototyping technique in which parts can be produced rapidly and accurately. Investment casting is an established process for producing components with high precision and accuracy. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the statistically controlled ABS replica as investment casting rapid casting solution. This study highlights the process of FDM + Investment casting as rapid casting solution. The work started with the identification of the benchmark/component. Prototypes (to be used as pattern) were built on FDM with ABS plastic material, followed by investment casting. The measurements on final casting prepared were made on the co-ordinate measuring machine from which IT grades were calculated to establish the dimensional accuracy of the castings (as per industrial standards). Measured mechanical properties (like: hardness, surface finish) indicated further suitability of this process. Final castings produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995).This process ensures FDM and investment casting of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

APPLICATION OF STAINLESS STEEL PIN AS A TOOL IN MAGNETIC ASSISTED FINISHING By Ashwani,Production
Abstract
Magnetic Abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the promising technique for the finishing of surfaces. The magnetic abrasives are used as micro finishing tools in Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process. As magnetic abrasives are not easily available the process is not fully utilized in commercial applications. The present work has been taken to develop an alternative magnetic tool for MAF which can be easily manufactured. One aim of this work is to investigate various process parameters of magnetic assisted finishing (MAF) process in the presence of the alternative tool consisting of tiny stainless steel pins. The pins are constructed from a cold rolled stainless steel wire. The present work has particularly taken to investigate into the length of the pins in order to make its use for finishing of internal surfaces of a metallic pipe In this study, A.C magnetic field has been used for generating magnetic flux around the work piece. An electromagnet capable of producing around 1 Tesla magnetic flux has been designed &fabricated and fitted in the experimental setup for carrying out experimental work. Various process parameters taken for the present work were magnetic flux density, machining time, rotational speed of the work piece and length of the pins. The performance has been measured in terms of surface finish and surface hardness of the internal finished surface of brass pipe. The performance of the process was observed to be the best at following values of process parameters [Magnetic Flux Density(0.8 Tesla), Machining Time (40 minutes), Length of Pin (ø 0.8 mm X 14 mm) and Rotational speed of the work piece (400 rpm)].

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION FOR HYBRID INVESTMENT CASTING By Nipun Sharma,Production
Abstract
The purpose of the present study is to experimentally investigate hybridization of polyjet printing, silicon moulding and investment casting process. Starting from the identification of component, prototypes with three different types of plastic material were prepared by hybridization of PolyJet printing, silicon moulding and investment casting. Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the cast components. Some important mechanical properties were also studied to verify the suitability of the components (like: hardness, surface roughness and microstructure). This study highlights the process capability of hybrid investment casting process in terms dimensional accuracy. Final components produced are acceptable as per IS standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). a9a076c6-6e75-4958-8d0c-153ab7caee2e

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ece student

OPTIMIZATION OF COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM USING SIMULATED ANNEALING By Kiranjot Kaur,Electronics



Abstarct
This thesis explores the Optimization of Cognitive Radio system using Simulated Annealing as the basic technique for the search of optimal solution. The Cognitive Radio that has provided a promising solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity, is also capable of adapting itself to the best available way for providing the optimize service that suit to the user’s requirements. In this work, a cooling based Simulated Annealing algorithm has been applied for the design optimization of Cognitive Radio system to meet the QoS requirements defined by the users in terms of five objectives. To accomplish this task, we have used five transmission parameters namely transmitted power, modulation index of the selected modulation type, bandwidth, Time Division Duplexing and symbol rate, that have been optimized to satisfy five different objectives as minimizing power consumption, minimizing BER, maximizing throughput, minimizing interference and maximizing spectral efficiency under the environmental constraints. The fitness functions have been formulated and implemented in MATLAB to evaluate the performance of these objectives in relation to transmission parameters that are considered. Finally, the simulation and comparative analysis show that fitness score obtained by Simulated Annealing in different scenarios is smaller (better) than conventional GA system. Hence, Simulated Annealing is outperforming Genetic Algorithm in Cognitive Radio system optimization.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS IN STEEL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:A CASE STUDY Bu Jasgurpreet S. Chohan,Production


Abstarct
The number of Steel Manufacturing Industries (SMIs) in India is increasing at faster pace due to strong demand of steel by automotive, manufacturing and construction industry. Large number of skilled and unskilled workers employed in these industries is suffering from various diseases due to physical and environmental hazards.
The present research work deals with the investigation of occupational health hazards (environmental and physical) and their impact on the health of workers of SMIs. A qualitative and quantitative study has been undertaken on 160 workers of four Small Scale Steel Manufacturing Industries (SSSMIs) and four Large Scale Steel Manufacturing Industries (LSSMIs) in Ludhiana city, exposed to these conditions, and on 40 workers of control group. The Ambient Air Temperature, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Sound Level have been recorded at respective work places. The results regarding environmental conditions reveal 36.90 % and 68.42 % higher values of Ambient Air Temperature and Suspended Particulate Matter than requisite standard level prescribed by OSHA and NAAQS respectively. The Sound Level has been found to be within permissible limits prescribed by CPCB. The physical tests are conducted to check the overall health of workers while lung function tests are performed to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary health using Spirometery. The physical health checkup of industrial workers disclosed that 29.37 % workers suffered from Obstructive Breathing, 20 % suffered from Prolonged Cough, 26.87 % suffered from dermatitis and 30 % suffered from Eye Infections which are significantly higher than Control Group at 95% confidence level under Chi-squared test. The Spirometric results show significant decline (19.94 %) of ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in One second (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) in exposed workers than controls at 95% confidence level under paired student t-test. It is also found that only 32 % of workers are using the available personal protective equipment regularly. It is recommended to technically modify the Pollution Control Equipment and install Pollution Monitoring Equipment and Caution boards. Periodic Safety programs and health checkup camps should be organized for awareness of workers.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF SHAPE FACTOR SLURRY LAYERS AND POURING TEMPERATURE IN PRECISION INVESTMENT CASTING By Jagdeep Singh,Production



Abstract
Investment casting is the process of completely investing a three – dimensional pattern in all of its dimensions to produce a one piece destructive mould into which molten metal will be poured. This process uses a pattern of an expendable material, such as wax or plastic.
The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of shape factor, slurry layers and pouring temperature in precision investment casting. Three controllable factors of the precision investment casting process (namely: shape factor, slurry layers (mould thickness) and pouring temperature) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness , dimensional accuracy (Δd) and surface finish (Ra). Castings were produced using aluminium, mild steel and stainless steel at recommended parameters through ceramic shell investment casting process. The micro structure analysis has been used to study the surface morphology. Cooling curve analysis was done to analyse the surface hardness data. Analysis shows that for surface hardness, contribution of shape factor is 0.07%, slurry layers is 0.70% and pouring temperature is 99%. As regards to surface roughness, contribution of shape factor is 1.14%, slurry layers is 16.80% and pouring temperature is 81.90%. Further for Δd contribution of shape factor is 1.53%, slurry layers is 22.47% and pouring temperature is 72.88%.
Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness of the investment Casting were improved significantly.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Ind student

EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT LAYOUT:A CASE STUDY OF MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION By Jagmeet Kaur,Industrial



Abstract
The type of plant layout has significant impact on the structure and operation of a manufacturing system. The study aims at identifying, evaluating and analyzing the factors that affect the Plant Layout at Imperial Engineers (Auto) Private Ltd. Ludhiana, Punjab. Four major factors Flexibility, Volume, Cost and Material Handling have been identified on the basis of problems being faced by the organization.
Three main types of layouts have been considered: Process layout, Group technology layout, and Product layout for a set of attributes and sub attributes. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), it has been found that Group Technology Layout is the best option with weightage of 47% for a give set of attributes and sub attributes.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from cse student

DESPECKLING OF ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING WAVELETS By Gunjan,cse


Abstract
Ultrasound imaging is most widely used imaging technique because it is economical, comparatively safe, adaptable and capability of forming real time imaging. Ultrasound images are usually corrupted by noise in its acquisition and transmission process. As a result, in the past few decades considerable efforts in the field of ultrasound imaging have been made for improving the image quality to make ultrasound imaging better for the perception of radiologists and more suitable for processing by autonomous machines for segmentation and registration. The major shortcoming of ultrasound imaging technique is the presence of special kind of noise called speckle noise. Speckle noise tends to reduce the image contrast and blur image details, thereby decreasing the quality and reliability of medical ultrasound. As a result, image processing methods for suppressing the speckle noise have proven useful for enhancing image quality and increasing the diagnostic potential of medical ultrasound. Many denoising methods such as Frost filter have been developed so far for despeckling of ultrasound images but sometimes important diagnostic details are lost while denoising because of over smoothing. A new multiscale technique known as wavelets is known to remove speckle noise without resulting into over smoothing and perform well near edges. In this thesis work, a multi-scale despeckling technique for ultrasound images using wavelet transform is proposed. The enhanced method suppresses the speckle noise present in the 2D medical ultrasound images to a great extent without causing over smoothing near edges. It employs a preliminary detection of the wavelet coefficients that represent the features of interest in order to empirically estimate the conditional probability density functions of the coefficients given the useful features and given background noise. The enhanced Wavelet based method when compared to the Frost filter and Pizurica Method, outperforms these filters. The proposed method reduces the noise significantly by preserving the important details or features as was demonstrated, on several ultrasound images. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields significantly better visual quality and better values of SNR, EPI, MSE and COC as compared to other techniques for speckle noise reduction. Thus the proposed method reduces speckle noise and also preserves edges while despeckling in a better way than other techniques.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from EE student

ELECTRICAL ENERGY AUDIT OF A STEEL INDUSTRY By Manpreet Singh,Electrical


Abstract
The gap between demand and supply of energy is continuously increasing despite huge outlay for energy sector since independence. The gap between demand and supply of energy can be bridged with the help of energy conservation which is to be considered as a new source of energy that is environment friendly. Energy conservation is now become a necessity. Considerable saving in energy is possible by the proper choice of equipments, their effective use in a optimal way. The only feasible way to handle energy crisis, apart from capacity addition, is the efficient use of available energy. For this there is a need of optimising energy, using standard systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output. The energy conservation is cost effective with a short payback period and modest investment. There is a good scope of energy conservation in various sectors, viz., industry, agriculture, transport and domestic. Steel industry is one of the most important industries in the India. India’s economic growth is contingent upon the growth of the Indian industry. Consumption of steel is taken to be an indicator of economic development. The establishment of Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in 1907 was the starting point of modern Indian steel industry. Afterwards a few more steel companies were established. Steel industries suffer from inadequate development planning, which is a typical problem with most of the steel industries that leads to wastage of energy use. Few studies have been conducted in the past, which shows that there are many opportunities in the steel industries to save energy. This report through one of its preliminary study of a major steel industry identifies the key areas where electrical energy can possibly be saved. The report opens up new vista of saving energy in a steel industry.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

EFFECT OF SOME PARAMETERS ON THE CAST COMPONENT PROPERTIES IN HOT CHAMBER DIE CASTING By Harvir Singh,Production


Abstract
Hot chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds, called dies.
The present research work is aimed at the development of spring adjuster as a case study for hot chamber die casting applications. Three controllable factors of the hot chamber die casting process (namely: pressure at second phase, metal pouring temperature and die opening time) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting.
Castings were produced using aluminium alloy, at recommended parameters through Hot chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that for surface hardness, contribution of second phase pressure is 82.48%, die opening time is 9.24% and metal pouring temperature is 6.78%. As regards to weight, contribution of second phase pressure is 94.03%, metal pouring temperature is 4.58% and die opening time is 0.35%. Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of die opening time is 76.97%, metal pouring temperature is 20.05% and second phase pressure is 1.56%.
Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the castings were improved significantly.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod student

EFFECT OF PHASE PRESSURE ON CASTING PROPERTIES IN COLD CHAMBER DIE CASTING PROCESS By Rahul Kapoor,Production



Abstract
Cold chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds called dies. The present research work is aimed at parametric optimization of process parameter in cold chamber die casting for an industrial component (crank case). Three controllable factors of the cold chamber die casting process (namely: 1st phase pressure , 2nd phase pressure and limit switch position) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness (SH), dimensional accuracy (Δd) and weight of cast component (W). Castings were produced using aluminium alloy at recommended parameters through cold chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that in cold chamber die casting process the percentage contribution of 1st phase pressure, limit switch position and 2nd phase pressure for surface hardness is 84.17%, 11.43% and 1.93% respectively. While in the case of weight of cast component, the contribution of limit switch position is 52.26%, followed by 1st phase pressure and 2nd phase pressure (34.77% and 9.65% respectively). Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of 1st phase pressure is 64.55%, limit switch position 27.71% and 2nd phase pressure contributes 4.87%. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting were improved significantly.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from indus. student

MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN INDIAN RAILWAY CONTAINER BUSINESS USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS By Neeraj Bhanot,Industrial



Abstract
With the globalization of economy, the overall maturation of business operations logistics activities becomes more and more important for a firm. Performance measurement plays an increasingly important role in the regulation and management of organizations. Indian Railways being sole government organization for infrastructure, operations and regulatory functions entered for competition in the container segment in January 2006 through private-public participation for customer centric competitiveness to break monopolistic control of Container Corporation of India (CONCOR) introducing limited licensing policy. The purpose of this research work is to benchmark the performance indicators in Indian Railway Container Business. A case study has been conducted employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology on secondary data of container terminals of CONCOR, Adani and Gateway logistics. Data from year 1995-96 till 2010-11 has been used for performance evaluation within CONCOR itself and comparative analysis for all three organizations from 2005-06 till 2010-11. The exercise identified efficiency trends fluctuating between 88.56% to 100% within CONCOR owing to haphazard infrastructure developed while comparison with private players showed 49.3% to 88.5% efficiency fluctuation concurrent to licensing policy norms.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from indus. student

THE GREENING OF SUPPLIES SELECTION CRITERIA IN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING SECTOR OF PUNJAB:AN EMPIRICAL STUDY By Gaganpreet Singh,Industrial 



Abstract
The arrival of global manufacturers has brought about new challenges of environmental concerns and managers are forced to deal with social and environmental issues, not only for the own firm, but also related to the supply chain partner. The purpose of this study is to identify major drivers, various practices and performance, to create awareness about Green Supply Chain Management and to develop an integrated model of the green supplier selection process in the context of Green Supply Chain Management in the automobile manufacturing organizations of Punjab. To assess the different criterions for supplier selection, a questionnaire was designed. Data has been collected from thirty three respondents of different automobile manufacturing organizations of Punjab (including original parts manufacturers). Collected data has been analyzed by Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP). It has been identified that criterion central governmental environment regulations is the major driving power for green of supply chain. Reduction of solid waste , reduction of waste water, increased amount of goods delivered on time, promote product’s quality and company’s environmental mission are the most dependent criterions and also the first priority for selecting supplier as a green is supplier D (Barnala Auto) with composite value 0.57 and last choice is supplier B (Sahahra Steel) with composite value 0.32.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from cse student

NORMALIZATION AND MODIFICATION OF CONCATENATED SPEECH USING TD PSOLA METHOD By Jasmeet Singh,cse 


Abstract
This thesis presents the design and evaluation of an approach to concatenative speech synthesis using the Time-Domain Pitch-Synchronous Overlap-Add (TD-PSOLA) signal processing algorithm. Concatenative synthesis systems make use of pre-recorded speech segments stored in a speech corpus. At synthesis time, the best segments available to synthesize the new utterances are chosen from the corpus using a process known as unit selection. During the synthesis process, the pitch and duration of these segments may be modified to generate the desired prosody. The TD-PSOLA algorithm provides an efficient and essentially successful solution to perform these modifications. Despite the popularity of the TD-PSOLA algorithm, research has been undertaken to address this recognized problem of distortion. The approach in the thesis has been developed towards reducing the perceived distortion that is introduced when TD-PSOLA is applied to speech. To investigate the occurrence of this distortion, a psychoacoustic evaluation of the effect of pitch modification using the TD-PSOLA algorithm is presented. Subjective experiments in the form of a set of listening tests were undertaken using word-level stimuli that had been manipulated using TD-PSOLA. The data collected from these experiments were analyzed for patterns of co- occurrence or correlations to investigate where this distortion may occur. The aim is to produce synthetic speech with less perceptible distortion and to apply pitch modifications on the concatenated speech. The success of the framework, in terms of generating synthetic speech with reduced distortion, was evaluated. A listening test showed that the TD-PSOLA balanced speech corpus may be capable of generating pitch-modified synthetic sentences with significantly less distortion than those generated using a typical phonetically balanced corpus.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from pord student

SOME INVESTIGATIONS FOR INVESTMENT CASTING APPLICATIONS By Sunpreet Singh,Production



Abstract
Investment casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by making a mold of refractory slurry, which sets at room temperature, surrounding a wax pattern (which is then melted out to leave a mold without joints).
The present research work is aimed at the development of spherical disc of ball valve as a cast study for investment casting applications. Three controllable factors of the investment casting process (namely: volume/surface-area (V/A) ratio of components, slurry layer’s combination and type of metal) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and surface finish.
Castings were produced using Aluminium, Mild steel and Stainless steel at recommended parameters through ceramic shell investment casting process. The micro structure analysis has been used to study the surface morphology. Cooling curve analysis was done to analyse the surface hardness data. Analysis shows that for surface hardness, contribution of volume/surface area ratio is 0.055%, layer combination is 0.43% and type of metal is 99.28%. As regards to surface roughness, contribution of volume/surface area ratio is 15.56%, layer combination is 34.06% and type of metal is 49.66%. Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of volume/surface area ratio is 23.12%, layer combination is 6.57% and type of metal is 68.38%. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness of the investment castings were improved significantly.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student

CHROMATIC DISPERSION COMPENSATION USING AN OPTICAL ALL PASS FILTER By Mandeep Singh,Electronics 



Abstract

The purpose of this thesis is to experimentally study Optical All Pass Filters (OAPF) and optimize the value of distance of origin from poles (r) .Using the value of transfer function of optical all pass filter which is of 2nd order we find the factor of numerator and denominator. In this thesis we took the value of ‘r’ as .660 and the angular position (w0) as .390. The power was taken as 18dBm. When the power of laser is increased beyond 18dBm, poor results of BER and Q-factor were obtained, because non linearties are added. The phase response of OAPF will be designed to cancel the phase delay of single mode fiber (SMF) which is the main cause of CD. The simulation of the mathematical model of the optical communication system at 10 Gb/s employing the proposed OAPF is presented. We take the different values of optical fiber lengths starting from 100km to 180 km. At operating wavelength of 1.55 μm the CD is 17 ps/nm-km which is the amount of broadening in picoseconds that would occur in a pulse with a spectral width of optical source as one nanometer, while propagating through one kilometer of fiber. There is an improvement in BER with equalizer, up to in 1st channel, up to in 2nd channel and up to in 3rd channel as compared without equalizer. The improvement in Q-factor for the fiber length of 180 km is up to 4 times in 1st channel, up to 5 times in 2nd channel, and up to 3 times in 3rd channel.













New M.E.Thesis Submitted from CSE student

DESPECKLING OF MEDICAL ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING CURVELETS By Jappreet Kaur,cse



Abstract

Ultrasound imaging is most widely used imaging technique because of its non-invasive nature, low-cost and capability of forming real time imaging. Unfortunately, the quality of medical ultrasound is generally limited due to a number of factors, which originate from physical phenomena underlying the image acquisition. As a result, in the past few decades considerable efforts in the field of ultrasound imaging have been made for improving the image quality to make ultrasound imaging better for the perception of radiologists and more suitable for processing by autonomous machines for segmentation and registration. The major problem of ultrasound imaging technique is inheritance of Speckle noise while acquisition. Speckle noise tends to reduce the image contrast and blur image details, thereby decreasing the quality and reliability of medical ultrasound. As a result, image processing methods for suppressing the speckle noise have proven useful for enhancing image quality and increasing the diagnostic potential of medical ultrasound. Many denoising methods such as Lee filter and Frost filter have been developed so far for despeckling of ultrasound images but sometimes important diagnostic details are lost while denoising because of oversmoothing. Wavelet based filters rarely cause oversmoothing but they fail to perform well near edges. A new multiscale technique known as Curvelets is known to remove speckle noise without resulting into oversmoothing and perform well near edges. In this thesis work, a new method using unequispaced curvelet transform is proposed to despeckle the ultrasound images based on a windowing technique to compute threshold values. The quantitative and qualitative comparisons show that proposed method outperforms some existing techniques. The metrics used for evaluation are Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Edge Preservation Index (EPI), Coefficient-of-Correlation (COC) and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM).







New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student


A COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MOBILE AD HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS UNDER HIGH DATA TRAFFIC AND HI DEFINITION VIDEO CONFERENCING By Barjinder S. Kaler,Electronics

Abstract
The usage of wireless technologies, such as, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasing and it influences the development of new theories and structures for the communications. The mobility of nodes in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network results in frequent changes of network topology, making routing in MANETs a challenging task. Many protocols have been proposed for MANETs. These protocols can be divided into three categories: proactive, reactive, and hybrid. Proactive methods maintain routes to all nodes, including nodes to which no packets are sent. Such methods react to topology changes, even if no traffic is affected by the changes. They are also called table-driven methods. Reactive methods are based on demand for data transmission. Routes between hosts are determined only when they are explicitly needed to forward packets. Reactive methods are also called on-demand methods. They can significantly reduce routing overhead, when the traffic is lightweight and the topology changes less dramatically. They do not need to update route information periodically and do not need to find and maintain routes on which, there is no traffic. Hybrid methods combine proactive and reactive methods to find efficient routes, without much control overhead. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol is analyzed as proactive routing protocol which is designed to work in a completely distributed manner. It does not depend on any critical entity. Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol is analyzed as Reactive routing protocol which is designed to be self starting in mobile nodes and withstands a variety of network behaviours such as node mobility, link failure and packet losses. It consists of two mechanisms, Route Discovery and Route Maintenance. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is analyzed as Hybrid protocol. It consists of all the advantages of both proactive protocol and reactive protocol for communication between neighbourhood nodes. The efficient routing protocols can provide significant benefits to mobile ad hoc networks in terms of both performance and reliability. Some analyzes have been reported in the literature, evaluating the performance of routing protocols under various scenarios. This study focuses on the performance of MANET routing protocols under high traffic conditions. In this work, new applications will be designed to generate Constant Bit Rate (CBR) under heavy data load and high data traffic in the networks. All the research will be carried out by using a Discrete Event Simulator called OPNET.








New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student

INVESTIGATIONS IN DICTIONARY ATTACKS ON CELLULAR SECURITY BASED ON DES AND AES By Megha Nagpal,Electronics


Abstract
Cellular Communication has become an important part of our daily life. Besides using cell phones for voice communication, we are now able to access the Internet, conduct monetary transactions, send text messages etc. using our cell phones, and new services continue to be added. However, the wireless medium has certain limitations over the wired medium such as open access, limited bandwidth and systems complexity. These limitations make it difficult although possible to provide security features such as authentication, integrity and confidentiality. The current generation of 3G networks have a packet switched core which is connected to external networks such as the Internet making it vulnerable to new types of attacks such as denial of service, viruses, worms etc. that have been used against the Internet. In this paper we will study the effectiveness of AES and DES algorithm against dictionary attacks by comparing the time taken to break the security in AES and DES. Extensive literature survey will be performed to study all aspects of cellular security and with specific focus on encryption techniques and attack techniques. Separate program will be developed to simulate dictionary attack on the cellular system based on above algorithms and the effectiveness against the attack will be investigated. The metric used to study the effectiveness of algorithm will be evaluated from the extrapolated experimental time taken to break the security. Matlab is used to make a simulation model for AES implementation, to make a simulation model for DES implementation, to make a simulation model for Dictionary Attack, to compare the time taken to breach the security in AES and DES



New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student

COMPARISON BETWEEN CWT BASED SEPERABLE 3D AND 4D NONLOCAL SPATIOTEMPORAL TRANSFORMS FOR VIDEO DENOISING By Shivani Goyal,Electronics<./H4>
Abstract
The large number of practical application involving digital videos has motivated a significant interest in restoration or enhancement solutions to improve the visual quality under the presence of noise. At the moment, the most effective approach in restoring images or videos exploits the redundancy given by the nonlocal similarity between patches at different locations within the data. BM3D(Block matching three dimensional) relies on the so-called grouping and collaborative filtering paradigm: the observation is processed in a block wise manner and mutually similar 2-D image blocks are stacked into a 3-D group (grouping), which is then filtered through a transform-domain shrinkage (collaborative filtering), simultaneously providing different estimates for each grouped block. These estimates are then returned to their respective locations and eventually aggregated in to the estimate of the image. The filtering in V-BM3D (video-block matching three dimensional) is not able to distinguish between temporal versus spatial nonlocal similarity. It means in this technique, it is tough to understand that the blocks are grouped regardless of whether their similarity is due to the tracking of motion a long time or to the nonlocal spatial self-similarity within each frame). A powerful video denoising algorithm BM4D (block matching 4 dimensional), is required that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy characterizing natural video sequences to reduce the effect of noise. The algorithm implements paradigm of nonlocal grouping and collaborative filtering, where a four dimensional transform domain representation is leveraged to enforce sparsity and thus regularize the data. Moreover I have presented an extension of BM4D algorithm that can be effectively used as a blocking and deranging filter to reduce the artifacts introduced by most of the popular video compression techniques, have been proposed in this work. The algorithm, termed V-CWT-BM4D (video-complex wavelet transform-block matching four dimensional), at first constricts three dimensional volumes, by tracking blocks along trajectories defined by motion vectors and then grouped together mutually similar volumes by stacking them along a fourth dimension. Each group is transformed through a decorrelating four dimensional separable complex wavelet transform, and then it is collaboratively filtered by coeffients shrinkage. The effectiveness of shrinkage is due to the sparse representation of the transformed group: local correlation along the two dimensions of the block, temporal correlation along the motion trajectories, and the nonlocal spatial correlation along the fourth dimension. As a conclusive step, the different estimates of the filtered groups are adaptively aggregated and subsequently returned to their original position, to produce a final estimate of the original video. The proposed filtering procedure leads to excellent results in both objective and subjective visual quality, since in the restored video sequences the effect of the noise or of the compression artifacts is noticeably reduced, while the significant features are preserved. As demonstrated by experimental results, V-CWT-BM4D outperforms the state of art in video denoising as compared to V-CWT-BM3D.





New M.E.Thesis Submitted from EE student

IMPACT ON RELIABILITY OF UTILITY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN EMBEDDED GENERATION By Sunil Kaushik,Electrical



Abstract
As installed capacity of solar power generation is increasing continuously, its impacts on system voltage stability have been intensively studied in recent days. In the changing scenario of technology, the distributed generation is embedding with the main distribution system at various levels. In this thesis, various indices of power system are considered for studying the Impacts on Reliability of a Utility Distribution Network in Embedded Generation, using simple two bus bar’s low voltage distribution network to build additional delivery capacity i.e. power flow through the distribution network, to provide voltage support at load end and also reduction in the current through feeder for reduction of power loss. In this study, only photovoltaic sources connected to distribution network are considered. With the absence of reactive power support due to sudden change in the load demand there may be poor voltage regulation, which may lead to voltage collapse in the line. Therefore an accurate voltage stability index (VSI) is required to quantify the voltage stability margin for the system. Capacitor bank is also included to demonstrate its capability for voltage stability improvement. The goal of this work is to analyse the reliability of distribution network in terms of Maximum loadability Index(MLI), Voltage stability index(VSI), Voltage at load end(Vj) and power loss with and without distributed generation with the help of MATLAB program .
Distributed Generation (DG) is expected to play a key role in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors of the power system. Distributed Generation (DG) provides an alternative to the traditional electricity sources i.e. oil, gas, coal, water etc. and can also be used to enhance the current electrical system. The technologies for DG are based on reciprocating engines, photovoltaic, fuel cells, combustion gas turbines, micro turbines and wind turbines. The DGs are becoming increasingly popular due to their low emission, low noise levels and high efficiency. Some of the main applications of DG are to provide support and reliability to the power system in a grid-connected mode or isolated mode. With the growing use of DG, it is very important to study its impact on distribution network operation. The impacts of installing DG at the load end of a distribution system are explored in this work. The effect of DG at the load end of distribution network on reliability of the system is investigated in terms of various indices such as Vj, Maximum loadability Index (MLI), Voltage stability Index (VSI), Power loss etc.. A single line diagram of simple two node distribution circuit is taken to perform this analysis.









New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Prod. student

EFFECT OF SLURRY LAYERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF INVESTMENT CAST COMPONENTS By Paramjeet Singh,Production

Abstract
In modern manufacturing processes the investment casting is one of the most commonly used processes to achieve high rate of production with good quality. For investment casting process, formation of shell over the mold (by applying the paint and silica sand) has been considered the most important parameters for achieving the good quality castings. In this research work application of layer by layer of paint and silica slurry, of different grades (30-50, 50-80, 80-100 mesh), over the patterns (in the form of a tree) has been highlighted. For final experimentation; three different sets with the layers (3-1-1, 2-2-1 and 2-1-2) have been studied and compared for sound castings. The cast components have been analyzed based upon mechanical and metallurgical properties.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from cse student

AUTOMATED ASSESSMENT WITH IDENTIFYING WORD ORDERING OF SHORT SENTENCES By Navjeet Kaur,cse


Abstract
Assessment is used to evaluate the learner’s knowledge about the concepts learnt. Evaluation through objective testing is common in all evaluation system, where Multiple Choice Questions, Fill in the Blanks, Matching etc. are used for evaluation. The method of objective testing is not sufficient to completely verify all the concepts learnt by the learner. Objective type evaluation do not provide opportunity for deeper assessment. Objective type assessment provide limited insight into student knowledge. Thus computer assisted assessment of short text answers is developed. Here we present an approach to assess the short answers of computer science automatically. In this research we have define a set of evaluation criteria that covers all the relevant aspects of an essay assessment system. This research will perform summative assessment for short one-line sentence. This research outlined the implementation and analysis of technique used to automatically evaluate short one-line sentence response. This technique is used for summative assessment of short text responses. This technique perform filtering process before evaluation. It removes unimportant data that is present in the answer before the actual evaluation of a response typed by a student. It removes stopwords, stems, punctuation symbols, extra spaces, articles, duplicate words if any present in the answer. It also consider spelling mistakes and synonyms during evaluation process. This system will also take into account synonyms of words present in the text during evaluation process. This research will also perform grammar checking during evaluation of short one-line sentence responses. This research will not ignore word ordering. It will take into account a syntactic information present in any text. So this research will also consider syntactic information between words in a sentence for giving appropriate marks to a particular student.


New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student

OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF PULSE SHAPING FILTERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS By Mandeep S. Saini,Electronics


Abstract
An area efficient pulse shaping filtering technique is presented to reduce the implementation cost in wireless communication. Pulse shaping filter has been designed using raised cosine filter, nyquist filter and half band filter techniques. All designs have been compared in terms of performance and hardware requirement. The Park McClellan algorithm based equiripple technique has been used to optimize proposed design. The results show that the performance of the half band designs is almost identical to the raised cosine filter with significant reduction in hardware requirements. The proposed IIR half band design results in lowest filter order to provide cost effective solution for wireless communication systems. The wide diffusion of wireless terminals like cellular phones is opening new challenges in the field of mobile telecommunications. Besides, the possibility to transmit not only voice but even data between terminals and end users of many kinds has fostered the development of new technologies and new standards for cellular communications. Recently, there is increasingly strong interest on implementing multimode terminals, which are able to process different types of signals, i.e. WCDMA, GPRS, WLAN and Bluetooth. These versatile mobile terminals favor simple receiver architectures because otherwise they’d be too costly and bulky for practical applications. As digital technology ramps up for this century, an ever-increasing number of RF applications will involve the transmission of digital data from one point to another. The general scheme is to convert the data into a suitable baseband signal that is then modulated onto an RF carrier. Pulse shaping filters are used at the heart of many modern data transmission systems like mobile phones, HDTV, SDR to keep a signal in an allotted bandwidth, maximize its data transmission rate and Minimize transmission errors. The ideal pulse shaping filter has two properties:

i. A high stop band attenuation to reduce the inter channel interference as much as possible.

ii. Minimized inter symbol interferences (ISI) to achieve a bit error rate as low as possible. The RRC filters are required to avoid inter-symbol interference and constrain the amount of bandwidth required for transmission. Root raised cosine (RRC) is a favorable filter to do pulse shaping as it transition band is shaped like a cosine curve and the response meets the nyquistcriteria. The first nyquist criterion states that in order to achieve an ISI-free transmission, the impulse response of the shaping filter should have zero crossings at multiples of the symbol period. A time-domain sinc pulse meets these requirements since its frequency response is a brick wall but this filter is not realizable. We can however approximate it by sampling the impulse response of the ideal continuous filter. The sampling rate must be at least twice the symbol rate of the message to transmit. That is, the filter must interpolate the data by at least a factor of two and often more to simplify the analog circuitry. In its simplest system configuration, a pulse shaping interpolator at the transmitter is associated with a simple down sampler at the receiver. The FIR structure with linear phase technique is efficient as it takes advantage of symmetrical coefficients and uses half the required multiplications and additions.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from EE student

EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ON POWER SYSTEM SECURITY By Sameer Verma,Electrical

Abstract
In this Thesis work, an attempt has been made to minimize power losses and improves voltage stability in a distribution system. Distributed Generation (DG) is expected to play a key role in the residential, commercial and industrial sector of the power system. Distributed Generation (DG) provides an alternative to the traditional electricity sources i.e. oil, gas, coal, water etc. and can also be used to enhance the capacity of current electrical system. The technologies for DG are based on reciprocating engines, photovoltaic, fuel cells, combustion gas turbines, micro turbines and wind turbines. The DGs are becoming increasingly popular due to their low emission, low noise levels and high efficiency. Some of the main applications of DG are to provide support and reliability to the power system in a grid connected mode or isolated mode. With the growing use of DG, it is very important to study its impact on residential distribution network operation including voltage analysis, electric losses and reliability of the system. In this thesis, DG penetration levels and the impact of distributed generation across some locations are explored. Secondly, the impacts of installing DG on any one bus and the voltage profiles at the various buses or network are investigated. Thirdly, the losses of the system are analyzed. At the last the generation & incremental costs are computed. The proposed technique is used to find how to limit the losses at the various buses by the use of DG in the radial distribution system for improvement in the voltage profile of the distribution system and hence improve its voltage stability. In the first segment, the voltage profile and power flow at the various buses is calculated at each bus and between the buses using GAUSS SIEDEL method and in the second segment DG is used at one of the bus and analysis has been made for voltage profile and power flow. The proposed method has been tested on a 5 bus test system.

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from Ind. student

A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF MOBILE PHONE SERVICE USERS OPERATING IN PUNJAB By Vipan Bansal,Industrail


Abstract
Indian telecom sector like any other industrial sector in the country has gone through many phases of growth and diversification. Starting from telegraphic the field of telecommunication has now expended to make use of technologies like Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) to 3G in the mobile phones. The increased importance of services that makes the customer unsatisfied and also made content developers to come up with better and newer concepts and services. To understand that where this industry is at present and where it is headed, the research has been conducted to uncover the trends in the cellular industry and also to determine the reasons of shifting the service providers. In this study the opinion of 700 consumers from Punjab were taken. The results revealed that Short Message Service (SMS) is the most widely used Value Added Service followed by General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It has also been found that most of the respondents were satisfied with their current service provider but still eighteen percent respondents want to shift their service provider gave maximum willingness for shifting to Airtel. Call charges was the reason of changing the service provider with weighed score of 3.80 followed by poor network and customer care service having weighted score of 3.12 and 2.94 respectively.



New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student

MULTI OBJECTIVE CIRCUIT PARTITIONING FOR POWER OPTIMIZATION USING SIMULATED ANNEALING By Sumeer Khajuria,Electronics


Abstract
Circuit partitioning is the task of dividing a circuit into smaller parts. It is an important aspect of layout for several reasons. Partitioning can be used directly to divide a circuit into portions that are implemented on separate physical components, such as printed circuit boards or chips. The objective is to partition the circuit into parts such that the sizes of the components are within prescribed ranges and the complexity of connections between the components is minimized. As the size of present-day computer chips become larger (i.e., chips containing more than ten million transistors in sub-micron areas), the importance of obtaining near-optimal layouts that efficiently place and route the signals becomes increasingly important. Partitioning is a key approach in reducing the connectivity between areas of the chip so that modules can be more efficiently placed and routed to reduce wire-length, congestion, and increase the speed of the overall design. So, circuit partitioning is the decomposition of complex system into smaller subsystems with the objective that each subsystem can be independently designed thereby speeding up the design process and to minimize the interconnections between the subsystems. A balance constraint is often imposed to ensure that each subsystem contains about same number of components and this decomposition is carried out hierarchically, till each subsystem is of manageable size. Partitioning is a Hierarchical process, which can be carried out at three independent levels: System Level Partitioning, Board Level Partitioning, N1, N2 …....Nk and Chip Level Partitioning. Partitioning problem can be formulated as bi-partitioning or a multi-partitioning problem. Partitioning algorithms are broadly classified into two classes: Constructive and Iterative. On the basis of nature of the algorithm, partitioning algorithms can be classified as deterministic or probabilistic. On the basis of process used for partitioning algorithms can be classified as group migration algorithms, simulated annealing, and evolutionary algorithm.Problem of circuit net list partitioning is non polynomial hard and cannot be effectively solved by deterministic algorithms. SA being the algorithm belonging to the probabilistic and iterative class of algorithms are stochastic in nature and can be effectively used for circuit net list partitioning. In the present work, min-set and sleep time optimization has been simultaneously attempted.

































New M.E.Thesis Submitted from ECE student

SELECTION OF PARAMETER "r" IN RC5 w/r/b ALGORITHM ON THE PRIME NUMBER By Harsimranjit S. Gill,Electronics


Abstract
With the precipitous application of internet and wireless network, has triggered significant needs for information security and personal privacy. However, wireless systems are more vulnerable to unauthorized access and eavesdropping. A mechanism is required that ensures the security for the transmission of data over a communication link. Cryptography is the best way to convert the plain text into cipher text and then transmitted over the channel and by this means only the intended recipient would able to receive the data and other person could not recover the original information.
RC5 has a variable word size, a variable length secret key and variable number of rounds. Ronald Rivest proposed the RC5 algorithm with 12 numbers of rounds for better encryption. In this thesis the proposed work is that if the value for the rounds in RC5 be a prime number then the security level of the cipher is more, as compare to the higher value of rounds up to next prime number. By the NIST suite, different tests of RC5 algorithm are performed having same data length and key but for different number of rounds and the result for prime number of round is compared with composite number of rounds and results justifies that RC5 for prime number of rounds provide better security level than a result drawn by a composite number of round.


New M.E.Thesis Submitted from cse student

SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY HYBRIDIZATION OF FPAB ALGORITHM AND BACTERIAL CHEMOTAXIS By Loveleen Kaur,cse


Abstract
Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) has been widely accepted as a global optimization technique. This technique is proposed by K.M. Passino in 2002 to handle complex problems of the real world. In this work, we aim to classify the satellite image using the technique of Bacterial Foraging Optimization. One key step in BFO is the computational chemotaxis, where a bacterium takes steps over the foraging landscape in order to reach regions with high nutrient content. The chemotactic movement of a bacterium may be viewed as a guided random walk. In this thesis work, we design a new algorithm which is based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization which is used to classify the satellite image. The proposed algorithm has been applied to the 7-band satellite image of Alwar region of Rajasthan. Firstly we use a swarm data clustering method based upon flower pollination by artificial bees (FPAB) to cluster the satellite image pixels. Those clusters will be further classified using BFO. This new method shows an improved highly accurate results for the classification of satellite image. The accuracy of the results has been checked by obtaining error matrix and the KHAT statistics of the proposed algorithm. The accuracy of each feature has also been obtained by calculating the producer’s and user’s accuracy. The results indicate that highly accurate land cover features can be extracted effectively when the proposed algorithm is used.


New M.E.Thesis Submitted from IND. student

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF HOSPITAL WASTE GENERATION TO RECOVER ENERGY:A STUDY OF MOGA DISTRICT By Amrinder Singh,Industrial


Abstract
Medical care is vital for our life and health, but the waste generated from medical activities represents a real problem of living nature and human world. The purpose of the present study is to obtain the quantitative assessment of hospital waste generation to recover energy in Moga district. To assess the types and quantity of different types of hospital waste a questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire consists of quantitative questions. 60 respondents from 20 hospitals have been personally visited and made to fill the questionnaire. Five samples of each different types of hospital waste like cotton, bandages, plastic syringe and glucose bottles in different conditions were taken from hospital. Collected samples were tested in laboratory where calorific value and proximate analysis tests were conducted. The study highlighted that glucose bottles has highest percentage in terms of mass with 46%, bandages next highest has 16%, glass with 14%, plastic syringe with 12%, cotton and paper has 6% each in terms of mass. Plastic syringe has highest calorific value which is 42740 kJ/kg, while cotton has least 15190 kJ/kg. The study highlighted that quantity of hospital waste is increasing rapidly, it is better to implement an energy recovery project rather than incinerate or dumping of hospital waste. A gasifier should be installed near Moga, since land cost is less and hospital waste of Moga and near districts can be simultaneously treated there.


New M.E.Thesis Submitted from CSE student

A NOVEL ALGORITHM FOR CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT By Gursharanpreet Kaur,cse


Abstract
The importance of image as a media for storing and distribution of information in the multimedia area has increasingly grown. Images are often corrupted owing to channel transmission errors, faulty image acquisition devices, engine sparks, a.c., power interference and atmospheric electrical emissions. Because of these reasons, the objectives of corrupted images are hardly to distinguish. So these images need enhancement processing before objectives recognition. The purpose of enhancement is to stand out the useful information and enlarge the difference of characters in different objects in order to improve the vision effect and stand out the characters. The traditional enhancement algorithms are usually based on the computation of the whole image and the low frequency, high frequency and the noise are transformed synchronously while calculating transformation of the whole image. These algorithms enhance noise signal in image while they enhance image, which leads to the descent of information entropy. In recent years, the wavelet transform has become an attractive technique for image analysis and image compression. With its continuously increasing applications, the wavelet transform also shows its potential in image enhancement. Wavelet decomposition provides local information in both space domain and frequency domain. In the present work, a hybrid algorithm for contrast enhancement of gray-scale images has been proposed. Wavelets have been used as a preprocessing step for contrast enhancement. Although there are many contrast enhancement techniques which enhances the contrast of the image either locally or globally, but the proposed technique enhances the contrast of the image by working separately on low as well as high coefficients. The proposed technique is compared both subjectively as well as objectively by using suitable quality metrics with the existing contrast enhancement technique. The evaluation of the results shows that the proposed technique is better as compared to other existing techniques.




New M.E.Thesis Submitted from CSE student

PHONEME BASED TEXT TO SPEECH SYSTEM FOR PUNJABI By Mnapreet Kaur,cse


Abstract
In recent years, the use of computers in speech synthesis and speech recognition has become an important area of study among speech and computer scientists. The primary motive is to provide users with a friendly vocal interface with the computer and to allow people with certain handicaps (such as blinds) to use the computer. In this thesis, work is concerned with the development of Text-To-Speech (TTS) Synthesis System for Punjabi text, written in Gurmukhi script. Punjabi is the world’s 12th most widely spoken language. The populace speaking Punjabi is not only confined to North Indian states of India such as Punjab, Haryana and Delhi but is spread in over all parts of the world. Punjabi is a phonetic language and commonly written in Gurmukhi script. The research work was carried out with the aim that the developed system must produce synthetic speech corresponding to two qualities of Speech Synthesis: intelligibility and naturalness. In order to get the naturalness in the synthetic speech, Concatenative speech synthesis techniques have been used, with Punjabi Phoneme as a basic unit. The total Punjabi Phonemes were analyzed over a carefully selected Punjabi corpus and the valid phonemes were selected. The Punjabi speech database was prepared by labelling phoneme sounds in the recorded sound file; and then storing, starting and ending point’s boundary values in the database. A fairly good quality Punjabi Text-To-Speech synthesis speech has been developed.




New M.E.Thesis Submitted from PE student

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WIRE ELECTRODE MATERIALS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WEDM By Rajeev Kumar,Porduction


Abstract
Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a special form of the traditional EDM process in which material is eroded from the work piece by a series of discrete sparks between the work piece and the wire electrode separated by a thin film of dielectric fluid. The movement of the wire is controlled numerically to achieve the desired three-dimensional shape and accuracy for the work piece. WEDM is used in tool and die making industries, automobiles, aerospace, nuclear, computer and electronics industries. The average cutting speed, relative machining costs, accuracy and surface finish have been improved since the commercial inception of the machines; much more improvement is still required to meet the increasing demand of precision and accuracy by different industries. The performance of WEDM depends much on the wire electrode used. Brass wire is used extensively as a wire electrode in WEDM. Various high performance electrodes like zinc coated, diffusion annealed, coated steel core wires etc. have been developed to satisfy the machining needs. In the present study, three wires (brass wire, zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire) were selected and the performance parameters – cutting rate, wire wear and surface roughness were studied on the machining of AISI D3 steel. The full factorial design was used to analyze the relationship of input parameters (pulse on time, peak current and type of wire) with performance characteristics (cutting rate, wire wear and surface roughness). Results obtained shows the improvement in surface roughness with brass wire over zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire, but maximum wire wear was recorded with HCS wire. Cutting rate was maximum with HCS wire and minimum with brass wire. Electron Diffraction Spectrometry (EDS) results shows some deposition of work piece material on the wire. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the wire wear and surface roughness of work piece (after machining).

New M.E.Thesis Submitted from CSE student

EMOTIONAL SPEECH GENERATION FOR PUNJABI USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE By Manpreet Kaur,cse


Abstract
Generating emotions in speech is currently an imperative issue of research giving the requirement of modern human- machine interaction systems to produce expressive speech. Speech synthesis involves the simulation of human speech by computers. The different emotional states affect the speech production mechanism of a speaker in a number of ways, and leads to acoustical changes in their speech. These changes are perceived by listener due to the emotions added. This thesis describes a speech generation system that is able to generate emotional synthetic speech from a recorded natural speech using Digital Signal Processing Technique. This system implements TD-PSOLA method to simulate four basic emotions that are anger, fear, happiness and sadness. These are chosen as they utilize different changes in vocal parameters; anger and happiness shows increased activity in the pitch contour, anger also shows noticeable voice quality changes, sadness shows decreased activity in the pitch contour, The speech rate is slightly faster than in normal speech and contains pauses between words forming almost one third of the total speaking time. For embedding emotions TD-PSOLA method has been implemented that can be used to simulate different emotions in a natural speech. TD-PSOLA is used as it allows for high quality pitch and time scale modifications of stored speech segments and has a very low complexity and computational cost. The evaluation of the system showed that it generates recognizable emotions in speech but improvements are still necessary.





New M.E.Thesis Submitted from PE student

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EDM WIRE ELECTRODES ON THE MACHINABILITY OF D3 MATERIAL By Vikrant Aggarwal,Production


Abstract
Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a special form of the traditional EDM process in which material is eroded from the work piece by a series of discrete sparks between the work piece and the wire electrode separated by a thin ?lm of dielectric ?uid. The movement of the wire is controlled numerically to achieve the desired three-dimensional shape and accuracy for the work piece. WEDM is used in tool and die making industries, automobiles, aerospace, nuclear, computer and electronics industries. The average cutting speed, relative machining costs, accuracy and surface ?nish have been improved since the commercial inception of the machines, much more improvement is still required to meet the increasing demand of precision and accuracy by different industries.The performance of WEDM depends much on the wire electrode used. Brass wire is used extensively as a wire electrode in WEDM. Various high performance electrodes like zinc coated, diffusion annealed, coated steel cored etc. have been developed to satisfy the machining needs. In the present study, three wires (brass wire, zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire) were selected and the performance parameters - material removal rate, wire consumption and surface roughness were studied on the machining of AISI D3.The factor analysis was used to analyse the relationship of input parameters (Pulse on time and Peak Current ) with performance characteristics (material removal rate, wire consumption and surface roughness).Result obtained shows the improvement in surface roughness with brass wire over zinc coated wire and High Cutting Speed (HCS) wire , but maximum wire consumption (117 m/ piece) was also recorded with brass wire. Material removal rate was maximum with HCS wire and minimum with brass wire. Electron Diffraction Spectrometry (EDS) results shows the deposition of wire material on the work piece. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the deposition of different elements wire on the surface of workpiece.



New M.E. Thesis Submitted from civil student

NUMERICAL STUDY OF SHALLOW FOOTING ON MULTILAYER REINFORCED SLOPE By Sudhir Arora,civil


Abstract
Soil being the cheapest and readily available construction material has been popular with the civil engineers but being poor in mechanical properties it has been putting challenge to civil engineers to improve its properties depending upon the requirement which varies from site to site along with economic constraints. The use of reinforcement to improve the bearing capacity and settlement performance of shallow foundations has proven to be a cost-effective foundation system. Reinforcement can be in the form of sheets, strips, nets or mats of metal or synthetic fabric etc. Many times foundations are to be constructed on loose granular soils, soft fine-grained soils, or soft organic soils. In those situations geosynthetics enhance the ability to use shallow foundations in lieu of the most expensive deep foundations. A reinforced soil foundation (RSF) consists of one or more layers of a geosynthetic reinforcement and controlled fill placed below a conventional spread footing to create a composite material with improved performance. A composite reinforced soil foundation (CRSF) is an RSF that also includes a geosynthetic fabric separating native soil from the fill used to construct the RSF. There are many situations where footings are located on sloping fills (e.g., footings for bridge abutments on sloping embankments). In thses cases the bearing capacity of the footing may be significantly reduced, depending on the location of the footing with respect to the slope. One of the possible measures to improve the bearing capacity would be to reinforce the foundation ground with layers of geogrid. When a footing is constructed on a reinforced slope, the bearing capacity of the footing would be significantly increased by the presence of correctly placed reinforcements. The use of conventional material i.e. a (c- f) soil transported from borrow pits, in the construction of soil embankments becomes very costly as the soil is to be excavated, transported to the site and then it is to be used for construction. The use of conventional material is, therefore, increasingly becoming expensive and scarce. There is thus, a growing need in developing countries for research to be undertaken aimed at channelling local technology to the design and construction of low cost highway and other such projects. This is pertinent with abundance of cheap locally available raw materials/industrial wastes coupled with high cost of imported materials of construction.Fly ash provides an economical and suitable alternative to good earth for construction of embankments because it is one of the major industrial wastes coming out of the thermal power plants. Use of such wastes for major geotechnical applications will not only solve the problem of their disposal but also eliminate the environmental pollution to a great extent. Keeping this fact in view, fly ash has been chosen as the test medium. However, fly ash has been viewed very sceptically by Civil Engineers because of the fact that it is very fine grained material having little shear strength. It can only be used in huge amount with reinforcement. Thus fly ash will provide bulk of the mass to the geotechnical system and the reinforcement will provide the necessary strength.The present investigation involves numerical analysis with a commercial finite element program PLAXIS. The advantage of developing such a finite element model is that it can be used to examine various configurations which have not been modeled experimentally in the study. The numerical study (usuing PLAXIS) has been carried out for un-reinforced/reinforced fly ash slopes having multiple layer of reinforcement at different depths from the top of the slope.The bearing capacity and the settlement ratio of a rigid plane strain footing placed on top of a slope comprised of air-dried fly-ash with and without a multiple layer of geogrid–geotextile reinforcement are the two major outcomes of this study. The results from PLAXIS are compared with the experimental modelling results from the existing literature for the stability of fly ash slope reinforced with multiple geogrid layer. Various other aspects, which influence the behaviour of footings resting on the top of an unreinforced slope and reinforced slope have been taken into consideration in the present study, are location of the reinforcement and depth of embedment which are incorporated within the body of a model waste material. The results obtained from the proposed analysis show good agreement with the experimental results and therefore may be used for design of reinforced slopes loaded with a surcharge at its top.


New M.E. Thesis Submitted from civil student

NUMERICAL STUDY OF FOOTING ON SINGLE LAYER REINFORCED SLOPE By Amanpreet Kaur,civil


Abstract
Increasing demand of good construction sites opened a new direction to improve the weak soils to enable constructional operations possible on such soils. Among the various ground improvement techniques available, reinforced earth technique gained popularity over other techniques due to the overall economy and ease of construction, coupled with simplicity, which provides an added attraction to practicing engineers. Reinforced earth is formed by the association of soil and tension resistant elements in the form of sheets, strips, nets or mats of metal or synthetic fabric and arranged in such a way as to reduce or suppress the tensile strain, which might develop under gravity and boundary forces. Use of geosynthetics increases bond in the soil system due to the interlocking of soil particles with the reinforcement aperture as well as enhancing the bearing resistance of the transverse members of the reinforcement. Reinforced earth possesses many novel characteristics, which renders it eminently suitable for construction of engineering structures. The flexible nature of reinforced earth mass enables it to withstand large differential settlements as well without distress. Reinforced soil foundations may be used to construct shallow foundations on loose granular soils, soft fine grained soils or soft organic soils. The use of geosynthetics to improve the bearing capacity and settlement performance of shallow foundations has proven to be a cost effective foundation system. Geosynthetic reinforced soil has gained considerable popularity due to its wide application in the construction of geotechnical structures.Civil engineering structures are normally constructed on level ground but construction of such structures on top of a slope or on the slope are not uncommon. Further, in some engineering practice, structures such as bridge abutments or other traffic facilities have to be constructed close to the crest of a slope. The bearing capacity of a foundation constructed near the edge of slope reduces as compared to the foundation constructed on a horizontal ground surface. The investigation of bearing capacity of loaded slope is therefore one of the very important aspects in design of such structures because they are more liable to failure due to slope failure. Stability of such structures is thus inter-related with the stability of slopes. The positioning of footings in relation to the edge of the slope is another important aspect; which has implications not only on the safety but also on the overall design of such structures. A reinforced soil slope is a soil slope which is mechanically stabilised by reinforcements to maintain a steeper attitude than its normal safe angle without reinforcement. Reinforced slopes are cost effective alternatives for new construction where the cost of fill, right of way and other considerations make a steeper slope desirable. Typically geosynthetics are used for reinforcement in engineering slopes to increase the stability of the slopes, particularly if a steeper than safe unreinforced slope is desirable. When compared with reinforced earth retaining walls and to that for reinforced level ground, the problem of the behaviour of footings located in the vicinity of the crest of a reinforced sloped fill has received virtually no attention. In view of the importance of the problem, it is therefore useful to adopt a comprehensive study concerning stability of unreinforced as well as reinforced slopes loaded at the crest. The present investigation aims at a comprehensive study of the various parameters that affect the stability of unreinforced and reinforced earth slopes loaded with rigid strip footings. A Numerical analysis was carried out using a commercial finite element program PLAXIS version 8 (Brinkgreve and Vermeer 1998). The reinforced slope was analysed by varying the depth of embedment of the geosynthetic reinforcement and the corresponding pressure – displacement curves were compared to get the optimum value of embedment depth of reinforcement. Also the distance of the footing from edge of slope at crest was varied to analyse the effect of edge distance on bearing capacity behaviour of the footings constructed on reinforced and unreinforced earth slopes. Two types of soils (sand and silty soil) and three different types of geosynthetics were used in the study. The objectives of this study are (i) To determine the influence of geosynthetic reinforcement on the bearing-capacity characteristics of a footing on slope, (ii) To obtain an optimum depth of embedment of geosynthetic reinforcement layer and (iii) To analyse the effect of edge distance on bearing capacity characteristics of footing constructed on slope. The results of the investigation indicate that both the pressure–settlement behaviour and the ultimate bearing capacity of footing improved considerably by the inclusion of a reinforcing layer at the appropriate location in the fill slope. Based on results of numerical study, the critical value of embedment depth of geogrid layer for maximum reinforcing effects was established. The results of the study were also compared with the available literature for validation of finite element analysis.

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